Super interesting. I've really been enjoying your posts, Chad. Amazed to see multiple instances of data contradicting a prevailing narrative, e.g. teacher shortage, that young people don't want to teach, etc.

Question here — Are those taking the Praxis II test coming out of some education program prior? Or is it a substitute for a degree, like a bachelor's? (In other words, if I get my bachelor's in education, do I need to also take this test to qualify in a given state?) I ask, because I'd like to know what this reflects about teacher training programs more generally. Is this to say that you might as well skip them, because on average, they don't improve quality?

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